How Does Monero Work?

How Does Monero Work?


Hello world it’s Siraj and Monero is the currency that I’m gonna talk about today, so first
I want to start off by saying one thing. I do not condone any
illegal usage of any cryptocurrency
Manero is an untraceable cryptocurrency and
Definitely lots of people who like to sell things illegally on the internet use it
But the reason that I’m talking about it is not for that the reason
I’m talking about it is because you should be able to control your data and some of your data is
transactional data and currently companies can mine that data for free and use that to make
Predictions about what you will buy and what you won’t buy so they can show you ads and stuff like that
But ideally they pay you for this data right and the only way for them to pay you for that data
Is if you control it and the only way you can control it is if it’s anonymous and they have to ask you for permission
To see your transaction history
Okay, so Manero is the currency I’m gonna talk about today
And I have this image here of this these three different features that I thought was the best high level description of Manero
So it says decentralized
Private and digital and monaro is all three of these things
so it’s decentralized because no one controls it it’s
Digital because you can run it over the Internet and it’s private because no one can tell
who you are when you send a transaction that means no one can tell who sent a
Transaction who you sent it to and the amount that you sent
So it’s all private unlike Bitcoin and these three kind of Venn diagram looking things are
examples of
Assets or currencies that are examples of two of these right so bitcoin is decentralized because no one controls it
It’s digital because it runs over the Internet
Fiat currency like the dollar is private because you could exchange it by hand
it’s digital because you can do it over the Internet as well and
Gold is decentralized because no one
Authority controls it and it’s private because no one can tell you know if you just take some gold and give it to someone else
There’s no third party involved so no one can tell anything about that transaction
Okay, so Manero is all three of these things and there other cryptocurrencies that are all three of these things
But in terms of popularity Manero is definitely at the top right now at least so let’s get into this technical
Analysis of how Manero works I’m gonna talk about all the features of Manero. I’m gonna talk about how you can mine it
I’m gonna talk about how you can buy it and mostly
This is a technical talk, so we’re gonna go into the technical details of how these
Transactions are private and what differences it has from Bitcoin
Okay
So the first thing I want to talk about is the difference between Manero and Bitcoin so got this great
List here of all these different features that Manero has and all the different features that bitcoin has and how they’re different
Right because they are very different
Some of them are very similar like they both use the proof-of-work algorithm to secure the network. They’re both digital currencies
They both have a transaction fee. However Manero is is much less than bitcoins
I don’t know what what is bitcoins now like $20 a transaction. Just crazy. That’s crazy
Block time is much faster from the four monaro
But the real difference here the real key difference is the the trackable factor?
Manero is untraceable and it’s unlink about bitcoin is not
I’m gonna go into the details of what I mean like really into the details so so stick around
So a lot of the hype around Bitcoin was that it says. Oh, it’s a pseudonymous currency
No one can’t note. There’s no third party involved
There’s no bank you own your currency you own your data. You and your assets
But but the truth is that Bitcoin is very very much traceable
Okay
You can send Bitcoin by literally only
Pointing that transaction back to a previous transaction in the chain of blocks right a blockchain
That’s the only way and that and so your transaction when you make one in the Bitcoin network
points back to every
Transaction that came before it all the way back to the coinbase transaction the coinbase transaction is that?
Transaction that occurs when a miner and only a miner can make a coinbase transaction
Receive a reward from mining some blocks, so it’s like Bitcoin that comes from nothing, but it I mean it come as a reward for
performing the proof-of-work algorithm
But right so you can trace any transaction back all the way to the coinbase transaction in the Bitcoin network
And you might be saying well how am I able to do this?
Well it turns out that you can look up any transaction in the blockchain Explorer
So that’s that and this can be hard to do manually right
I mean you say you sense Center transaction to somebody else and then they send it to somebody else right
That’s two links in the chain
It’s easy to just go click once and then click once again on the blockchain Explorer
But as nodes are added the complexity increases
Exponentially right because as those funds are split and then those funds are split
And then those funds are split it gets harder and harder and harder to tell where that transaction
Originated from and if you don’t believe me when I say that bitcoin is
Traceable just ask the founder of Silk Road the online dark web market for selling illegal items
There are people literally sitting in jail right now because bitcoin is in fact a very very traceable system
Okay, so Silk Road. I mean there’s this whole story about Silk Road
They should definitely make a movie about it the guy was ordering hits on people and he was doing all this crazy stuff
Which I don’t condone, and I don’t think it’s cool, but he’s sitting in jail right now
And they probably will and probably have made a movie about it, but my point is that bitcoin is traceable
right
So yes criminals don’t want to use a currency that is traceable, but if but the thing is whether or not I make this video
Criminals will find a unfine and untraceable currency
You just have to type into Google untraceable currency if you want to do bad. You will do bad, right?
I am NOT making this video for criminals. I’m making this video for you. You are my viewer, right?
I’m making this video for people who want to understand all the technical details of how cryptocurrencies
Work, and then use this knowledge to then do good for the world, right
This is just knowledge in your arsenal to do good ok
So just remember that as a motivation behind this video
So you could attend to make anonymous transactions in Bitcoin threeways so remember bitcoin is not anonymous its
pseudonymous meaning even if someone traces back you the trail of
Transactions back to you that is still your public address that public address says nothing about your identity
It’s not like the word Siraj is embedded in my public address right so how can you tell ownership?
Well, there’s a variety of ways IP addresses, you know
finding the endpoints of
I’ll talk about it. Let me let me let me. Let me show you this so there are three ways to attempt anonymous transactions
The first way is to create a new wallet after every transaction and coin based comm doesn’t does this like by default
But as soon as that money is used the endpoint person could be squeezed for information
Right so if you send some money to somebody and you want to remain anonymous you’re creating wallets between every transaction
Eventually someone is going to use that money in the real world for you know paying a dentist or buying a soccer ball or whatever
And then that is an endpoint person someone a real person that you know people with guns or whatever can say hey
give me the information and then they can trace it back to you another way is to wash your money through a tumbler and
A tumbler is a service that aggregates your money with many other funds, and then sweeps them through large financial institutions
so if I send money to a tumbler service other people send money to that tumbler service
Those funds are then aggregated together and then split up into little amounts and then they’re sent out through through these different
Gateways right so it’s very hard to tell who
Originated a transaction, however in a court of law this could be deemed as supporting evidence for criminal intent by courts
You could also wash your money wash your money by purchasing assets
Real-world assets. You know a
basketball court a
House a car and then transferring that money back to Bitcoin or another currency and just doing that over and over again
But that is illegal, and yeah, so these are all not good methods
They’re possible methods, but they’re mostly illegal and you will get caught okay?
so I
Is it untraceable the only good for criminals? No no it is good for criminals
Yes, so with paypal in the early days, so was Bitcoin in the early days, but there are legitimate use cases
for non criminals like us right so distributed online payment vulnerability is an example so
target right target the the corporation or
You know any of these corporations?
They mine your transaction data to then use it for predictive analytics to predict what you’re gonna purchase
And show you ads and other things to make you purchase things. This is your data
It’s very valuable and as everything gets automated your data will be the only
agency
You have in this new world it will be the only value of that you own right so you should be paid for it
Right and so if you understand where this is all going. You’ll see that data is the most valuable asset
We have right so watch my decentralized application video just search the centralized application Siraj
And you’ll understand more about what I mean when I say
Just how valuable your data is but the point is that if your your transaction history is anonymous then
They have to ask you for it, which means they have to pay you for it
And as you’re getting these payments from all these different
Institutions for your data. You’re making something like a basic income right just from your data
And that’s where we’re headed and that’s the reason we’d want to use an anonymous
currency like Manero for example
Right so if user visits an online shop the online shop collects user data
And then an algorithm predicts purchase probability you should be paid for this in short
So let’s let’s get into the technical details now shall we so the crypto note protocol introduced the idea of anonymous not pseudonymous
transactions
So it all started with buy coins so by coin was the first implementation of an anonymous?
Currency right it was this is a first implementation of the crypto
No protocol is it’s white paper
and
Then there were some
offshoots up by coin right so first buddha coin and then paladin coin bull berry and then Manero and in Manero was the one that
Really took off right Manero. I think is number 10 right now on coin market capcom
It’s I think seven billion dollar market cap so it’s a lot of money and all of these currencies that follows were offshoots of
Manero they were Forks of an arrow with added features
But Manero is really the most stable and the most popular of the anonymous currencies out there
Okay
so
Crypto no transactions cannot be followed through the blockchain in a way that reveals who sent or received
addresses so Manero is a version of crypto note that hides the sender the
amount the transaction broadcast and the receiver so the sender is
Made anonymous through the use of what are called ring signatures
Which I’ll explain
The amount through ring confidential transactions that brought the transaction broadcasts like the location of where you are your IP address etc
Through an ITP router called Calvary and the receiver through the use of stealth addresses now. I’m gonna explain
How all four of these things work ok so let’s do that?
let’s get into this right so monaro has a lot of features the two main ones that really matter that make it unique or
Untraceable ‘ti and unlink ability unlink ability means if I have a public address in the Monaro network
No transaction can be linked back to that public address so anyone can take my public address
And they could say well, what transactions were sent to and from this address and no one will know
Untraceable means that no one can tell where any transaction originated from so there are two separate of descriptions
They’re very similar, but not quite and I’ll talk about each right now
So for unlink ability right so for unlink ability
Here’s how Bitcoin works in Bitcoin everyone has a public address 25 character public address
And you use it to receive funds and anyone can see how much you received right because it’s a public ledger
When sending funds you’ve announced to the entire
Bitcoin network that the funds you own now belong to the recipients public address so that transaction is fully public
the difference in Manero is this so this is an image of
A very high-level image of how Manero works now get into the details in a second
So in Manero everyone has a public address like this right, so it’s a much longer public address
hold on and
Unlike Bitcoin your funds are not associated with your public address
So when you send funds to someone else’s public address you’re actually sending those funds to a randomly created
One-time destination address right here the commitment public key
So no public record of sending or receiving funds when I send funds to someone they’re actually sent to a one-time address
It’s just created temporarily just for that transaction, and that’s what’s public not my public key
Not that not the cent not the receivers public key, but that commitment public key
And so that public address will never appear so your public address will never appear in the public record of transactions
Instead a stealth address is recorded in a way that only you and the recipient can recognize the incoming funds
So when the recipient checks for funds they need to scan the blockchain to see if any
Transactions are destined for them so the recipient has a secret view key
which is used to check each transaction when they scan the blockchain to see if it was addressed to them and
because the recipient is the only one that knows the secret view key only the
Recipients can see the funds that have been sent to them right so that’s why when you launch manera wallet
It’s scanning the blockchain to see if any transactions have occurred
For you as a recipient right so
But anyone who has your secret view key can also see what funds you have received
Right so when you send the transaction right so it’s an input the output is going to be this commitment public key
Which is public and then these two?
Secret view keys one for the sender so I can see how much I sent and one for the receiver so they can see how
Much, they received, but publicly speaking
There’s just this one time address not linked to either you or the sender, okay?
And so that’s the idea of stealth addresses, and what that does is it hides the receiver, okay?
right so
It’s also untraceable so we talked about unlink ability
But it’s also untraceable let me talk about untraceable ‘ti okay so for untraceable ‘ti that’s where the use of ring
Signatures come into play right so for ring signatures in Bitcoin when you when you have an input so some incoming transaction
Right it you it’s signed using a signature by some identity right and then all inputs are clearly linked to a previous
transaction right so anyone can view this input and say oh
That’s where it originated from but in Monaro when you when you receive an input. It’s not just one input that you’re receiving
It’s their several and they’re all linked together so as a ring and all these us all of these inputs are signed
What using using what’s called a ring signature and then any input is going to be linked to more than one previous?
Transaction so no one will be able to tell who that input originated from because it’s a part of a ring of transactions
Let me go into what I mean, okay?
Okay, so here’s what I mean by ring signatures so the Monaro money supply is divided into outputs
Just like the US dollar is divided into dollar bills
quarters dimes pennies
Manero is divided into outputs divisions of currency and these outputs store a certain value of Manero each and
The value they hold can change over time
So suppose that these are all the outputs that exist and the one you control and can spend is highlighted in red
So let’s say these are all the outputs all the green ones and I own this red one number eight
Which let’s say is the equivalent of light say three hundred dollars and some of these are like two hundred
some of these are ten dollars and in monaro currency right and
When I create a Manero transaction
I’m using a ring signature to hide which input is actually being spent
So and the way, this is done is by making it seem like as if all the chosen inputs are the possible real sender
So when I send an input when I send a transaction there are five other transactions that are picked by random from other
Nodes in the network, and we don’t need their permission to choose those. They’re just there to obfuscate
Where that transaction is coming from right?
They’re all linked together in a ring and they’re all signed using a ring signature
So in the photo your real input is red and the five selected inputs are light blue and these inputs can be controlled by anyone
Else we don’t need their permission to add their input to the Ring signature
We sign them all such that an outside observer cannot determine, which is real one being spent right
And so once we have selected the other inputs
We need to finish creating the ring CT ring signature so the ring CT
ring signature is used to hide the amount that is spent the ring signature hides that the
Sender the stealth address hides the receiver and the ring CTS ring signature hides the amount that is being sent
So you sign it in such a way that all these inputs appear to be the real one
used and this signature includes several other important elements
So this is a more detailed view of what a transaction looks like in the Monaro network right so when I make a transaction
There are up to six other
transactions that are added to their to the Ring right all these rings rings are signed using a ring signature right and
Importantly very critically a key image is created from all of these transactions that key image is one hash
And it’s given to the network as proof that the signature was created
Appropriately the network
Verifies that this image has not been used before to prevent double spending so it’s got a list in the blockchain of all of these
Key images, and they look for a match has this key image been sent before yes, okay. It’s double spending you can’t do it
No, this is a valid transaction go ahead, and so that’s how spending is
prevented using the key image
Next is the Petersons commitment so this is used to prevent other people from knowing how much is actually being spent so it’s a formula
right so you have the actual amount that is spent a
It’s multiplied by a random number and this constant value here
And the result is this number that is a result of the formula and that that is a commitment right you can use this commitment
To commit to spending a certain value that only you have the authority to spend but other people don’t know what that value is
because it’s it’s
The result of this formula right it’s not that it’s not the original amount. It’s a result of this formula, and that’s what’s public
right so
So the Petersons commitment is a critical component of the ring
confidential transaction or ring CT it hides the actual value by adding a random number X the
Commitment value is calculated for the set of inputs and outputs in the transaction, and it is broadcast to the network
So that’s what the network sees as the result of that work of that Peterson commitment formula
And it and so that all comes together to form the ring CT ring signature
And the result is an unknown amount of monaro being spent the commitment public key is what’s used by the network to verify that
Commitment that I talked about before right
So how do the outputs get used over time so we can compare Bitcoin and Manero to find out right so in?
This theoretical history of the outputs we control all the blocks highlighted reds are the ones where the output appears
And if this was for Bitcoin we would eat really easily be able to tell that this output was transferred from user a to B
to C
But with Manero, it’s not so simple there are three reasons for an output to show up in a block either
It’s new money and a coin based transaction. It was actually spent or it was added as a decoy in a ring signature
I also want to talk about Cove rewrite
so we talked about how the
Sender is hidden using ring signature as we talked about how the amount is hidden using ring C T
We talked about how the receiver is hidden using stealth addresses, but how about the?
location right like where you are your IP address and that’s
Obfuscated using this I 2p routing service called Calvary
It’s kind of like tor but basically your transaction is routed through all these different nodes these internet
What do they call these internet invisible Internet project nodes right III two P nodes and these nodes pass your messages along and have no
Visibility over what is in them and that’s under construction right now?
It’s getting better and better over time and you can view its progress on github. It’s all public and open source
But it’s double spending proof right because we talked about that that key image that the whole blockchain has a copy of and
It’s blockchain analysis resistant
not completely nothing is but it’s the most block chain analysis resistant cryptocurrency that exists currently and
Yeah, so this is a huge high-level
Level overview of everything I’ve talked about if you want to go into more details really look into this
But yeah those four components are really the the key features of of Manero lastly adaptive parameters like we said before a monaro
transaction has an ambiguous output origin an unknown amount in a commitment in an
Known receiver so for every transaction on the network all of the information stored on the blockchain is obfuscated
right
So let’s talk about how to lastly I want to talk about how to by Mineiro
And then how to mine Manero okay in terms of how to by mineiro, I’ve got this great link here
It’s in the Jupiter notebook in the github description so check it out, but change lis is
The best site, I’ve found to buy Manero you can by using Visa or MasterCard
There’s you can buy it with Bitcoin and you can buy it with
even US dollar if you so please or Doge or all these currencies so definitely check out this website change Lea and
To mine Manero, I found this really great
Python repository that you can clone in docker it’s about the all the docker
Dependencies ready for Mac and Linux you can run it and you can start mining it as well, and yeah, it’s gonna be awesome
But yeah, it wraps this javascript mining library for coin hive that’s kind of like this generic mining library for a bunch of cryptocurrencies
But it works with any Manero pool, so these are pools of miners based on the strata mining protocol
You can set up your own pool. There’s no dead feed. There’s no adblock, and you can use any pool
You’d like but you clone this repository
Repository you CD into it you build it with docker
And then you run it with docker please subscribe for more programming videos and for now I’ve got to plan my scaling
Strategy for the new year, so thanks for watching

100 thoughts on “How Does Monero Work?

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  2. One of the main reasons for crypto $ is anonymity. And as for criminal usage. There are plenty of Benjamins out there that are coke heads %).

  3. I still dont see how the blockchain is validated from the genesis block with so much obfuscation while ensuring double spend.

  4. Hey, I saw you recommended Monero for 2018. Do you support the fork with MoneroV? Do you know which exchanges will give us the airdrop?

  5. 1. it's never too late to get into in Monero, the best privacy coin out there. 2. Theres an upcoming hard fork & Airdrop with MoneroV. You get 10 XMV for each 1 XMR. 3. This will probabaly drive Monero up like crazy in 2018. 4. Hold for long, believe in true privacy!

  6. Investing in Monero. There are talks about an upcoming Monero fork with airdrop distribution, is this legit? MoneroV is claiming to be the finite version of Monero. Anybody familiar with this??

  7. Ther's talks about an upcoming Monero fork with airdrop disrubiution, is this legit? MoneroV are claiming to be a finite version of Monero and pursue ambitious projects such as MimbleWimble. Anybody connected?

  8. Hey Siraj thanks for the deep explanation I am very intrigued by the technology Monero is using especially the RING signature piece. Dope video.

  9. How about throwing the FBI agents on the Silk Road case. They traced the stolen funds back to the FBI agents' bank accounts.

  10. Dude, if you could control your hands it would be probably interesting to listen to you. You know, your don't really have to articulate every single word you say – we're all grownups here, and would perfectly understand the meaning of the word "one", for example, without you having to demonstrate it to us with one of your fingers.

  11. Great video bro! Thanks!  Also thanks for showing that PRIVACY DOES NOT EQUAL things that are illlegal…  Have heard that those who are serious about criminal activity prefer diamonds.  This is more for a private individual!  Question, if a person purchases MONERO on someplace like Binance, would it not be connected that you purchased it from BINANCE. Private after that but a record that you purchased MONERO from Binance?

  12. 5:31 There is already a movie about silk road called "Deep Web " (2015). Filmmaker Alex Winter interviews the people behind the Deep Web and bitcoin to make "Deep Web"

  13. Siraj, you're awesome. Whenever I get interested in some cool technology, you already have a video covering it. Always on the top of the things. Keep it up buddy!

  14. Your explanations, enthusiasm and passion for A.I. is inspiring. I think Monero has a place for digital signatures, certified authority CA issued certificates, digital security: internet session integrity or Man-In-The-Middle MITM inspection and much more. However, crypto-jacking like crypto-wallet seizure and crypto-wallet break ins, receiver address re-directs and side-mining by malware keep cryptocurrency a side novelty out of the mainstream financial world. Whenever a true secure digital domain becomes available or real world laws can levy some real serious law enforcement of cryptocurrency, it may be some time. Even Monero, is subject to attacks and is not completely infallible. I wouldn't worry about governments not being able to decipher secretive cryptocurrency; they can still drug with truth serum, drug you and torture you till they get the password or target your loved ones till you play ball. There are many ways to anything.

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  16. Ok… I see a potential vulnerability here. If you know which users in a given ring are nodes, then you can deduce which one is the actual transaction. Am I right, or am I missing something?

  17. if you like privacy coins check out https://ultranote.org/ https://www.livecoinwatch.com/price/UltraNote-XUN with UltraNote in a few months will thank me for telling you about it. Low circulating supply, price is below 1 cent and tech is excellent they are the first to have launched file attachment with messages they are way more useful than Monero. Its 10X better than emails and its anonymous and untraceable. No one did this in the cryptocurrency industry.

  18. Hey Siray, can you please tell something about BCN bytecoin…where is deferences Monero Vs Bytecoin
    cheers

  19. Saying you are not making the video for criminal basically does exactly that. Why mentioning that several times? Once was just enough, now I am focused on the fact you almost outline opportunity of monero for criminals(!). Meaning, you could just as well trigger somebody to do the crime even if that is not your intention…. Small advice: Focus on what you want to tell, not on what you don't want.

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  23. I've been wanting to understand crypto for a long time but it really confuses me….especially because of the limits on purchasing as far as payment method goes…I don't have a bank account.
    This video is very easy to understand as a beginner and I just wanted to say thanks.

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  27. 9:30 it's not just that (say) Target mines your data; it's the inherent risk in a 3rd party having your data at all. Target was attacked by hackers in 2013. 70 million records of personal information were stolen; quite likely yours, if you went to Target…

  28. Ross Ulbricht, the founder of the Silk Road had a vision of creating a marketplace where most everything can be bought and sold with some moral exceptions. He didn't ordered hits on people.

  29. normally don't sub to anyone but you really do a great job with your clear and concise approach to educating/teaching people. Well done Siraj

  30. I thought the silk road guy was caught because they found a post discussing the silk road, on the clear web, by him using an email with his real name in it.

  31. Its still has the scalability and centralization issues associated with blockchain DLTs. Combine this with IOTA while making the IOTA guys nice people and we could have a winner.

  32. Muh hits on people muh crazy. Get your story straight! Ross Ulbricht was framed by the state and the bogus hitman charges were dropped.

  33. Monero, Zcash, Dash … these private coins are interesting for many people but especially for finacial institutes. Zcash has the advantage that it has an addressed institution, while Monero is complete decentralised … states, banks and so on will never accept a private currency that is complete decentral … this works only if all countries in the world would unite … and I can`t see this für the next 300 years.

  34. 👁️: Privacy of account balances and transactions is an essential enterprise-grade feature and prerequisite, to be used in many real-world commercial deployments.

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    👁️: You can't afford to have your competitors data mining a public blockchain and reconstructing your entire supply chain, flow of goods, pricing, balances, and relationships. This would be prohibitive.

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    👁️: The same applies to many other industry sectors and use cases – commercial, personal, and public. This will become increasingly apparent as the Crypto/Blockchain ecosystem continues to evolve and grow.

  35. Can criminals really launder money using monero though or is there some inside way of viewing their transactions when large enough?

  36. I don't understand the third way to anonymize bitcoin? How do you purchase an asset than convert back into bitcoin? Won't just at that time you could be revealed?

  37. but in the end, the Bitcoin community uses xmonero [.] to/
    for anonymization, because Bitcoin can no longer provide any anonymity.
    I still don’t understand how you guys can make money.

  38. Thank you for taking the time to explain this so clearly and thoroughly, best explanation I’ve seen of Monero!

  39. Thank you for taking the time to explain this so clearly and thoroughly, best explanation I’ve seen of Monero!

  40. Thank you for taking the time to explain this so clearly and thoroughly, best explanation I’ve seen of Monero!

  41. uhmmmmmmmm ur whole silk road thing is completely wrong. please nobody listen to what this guy says about the silk road at least

  42. Anonymous payment necessity
    1- As a replacement for phone verification for social networks activists (the fact that a company HQ located in the free world doesn't mean you should trust it)
    2- For running an online business like advertisement platform in dictatorships which hate citizens good life & real private sector (I can provide evidence for this claim)

  43. Anonymity is also needed in west:
    Example 1:
    All caffeine detector strip manufacturers are closed (Real). maybe a group with power considered psychostimulant needed for the scientific progress. Consider a whistleblower knowing something about that caffeine detectors companies closure reason.
    Example 2:
    When your are an activist for prolonging life of part society which is considered useless (for example ill persons which are not in a clinical trail), you are at danger of various government attack

  44. wow Siraj, your notes look to be quite an extensive study as well, is that part of the repository (couldn't find it) or part of public monero resources ?
    thanks for your amazing content and energy that you put into organising your content!!

  45. Privacy is important. It is not good if one single organization, like the government, knows everything, especially legal actions, of the people. There is a reason why governments like eastern Germany, soviet Russia, China, and north Korea try to watch everything people do. Because this is the best way to control the people, the opposite of Democracy. But of curse Obama and/or Trump would never abuse this power…

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